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Glossary
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G

G77, see Group of 77.

Global Warming Potential (GWP)
The global warming potential is the impact a greenhouse gas (GHG) has on global warming. By definition, CO2 is used as reference case, hence it always has the GWP of 1. GWP changes with time, and the IPCC has suggested using 100-year GWP for comparison purposes. Below is a list of 100-year GWPs used in the Kyoto Protocol for the six Kyoto gases:

Carbon dioxide (CO2) GWP: 1

Methane (CH4) GWP: 21

Nitrous oxide (N2O) GWP: 310

Hydrofluorcarbons (HFCs) GWP: GWP: 150 – 11 700

Perfluorcarbons (PFCs) GWP: 6500 – 9 200

Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) GWP: 23 900

See also Carbon Dioxide Equivalent.

Gold Standard
Initiated by WWF, SSN and Helio International, the Gold Standard for CDM projects was launched in 2003 after a wide-ranging stakeholder consultation among key actors of the carbon market as well as governments. It offers project developers a tool with which they can ensure that CDM, JI and VER projects have real environmental benefits and, in so doing, give confidence to host countries and the public that projects represent new and additional investments in sustainable energy services. Eligible project types are renewable energy and energy efficiency.

Grandfathering, see also Allocation.
Method for allocation of emissions credits/allowances to companies or other legal entities, usually free of charge, on the basis of their historic emissions.

Grazing Land Management
The system of practices on land used for livestock production aimed at manipulating the amount and type of vegetation and livestock produced.

Green Tag, see Renewable Energy Certificate.

Greenhouse gases (GHGs)
Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are trace gases that control energy flows in the Earth's atmosphere by absorbing infra-red radiation. Some GHGs occur naturally in the atmosphere, while others result from human activities. There are six GHGs covered under the Kyoto Protocol - carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). CO2 is the most important GHG released by human activities.

Green Investment Scheme (GIS)
The purpose of Green Investment Schemes is to promote the environmental effectiveness of AAUs transfers, by earmarking revenues from these transfers for environmentally-related purposes in the seller countries.

Group of 77 and China (G77/China)

G77/China is the developing country-group in the climate negotiations, consisting of more than 130 developing countries.

GWP, see Global Warming Potential.

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